High-Dose Vitamin C for Cancer Therapy – PMC

8], atherosclerosis [], the common cold [], cataracts [], glaucoma [], macular degeneration [], stroke [], heart disease [], COVID-19 [], and cancer.nHighlight:1–5% of the Vit-C inside the human cellsnHighlight:DHA is quickly converted to Vit-C within the cell, by interacting with reduced glutathione (GSH) [,,]. NADPH then recycles the oxidized glutathione (glutathione disulfide (GSSG)) and converts it back into GSHnHighlight:metabolic activity, oxygen transport, and DNA synthesisnHighlight:Iron is found in the human body in the form of haemoglobin in red blood cells and growing erythroid cells.nHighlight:macrophages contain considerable quantities of ironnHighlight:iron is taken up by the majority of cells in the form of a transferrin (Tf)-Fe(III) complex that binds to the cell surface receptor transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1)nHighlight:excess iron is retained in the liver cellsnHighlight:the endosomal six transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 3 (STEAP3) reduces Fe(III) (ferric ion) to Fe(II) (ferrous ion), which is subsequently transferred across the endosomal membrane by divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1)nHighlight:labile iron pool (LIP)nHighlight:LIP is toxic to the cells owing to the production of massive amounts of ROS.nHighlight:interaction between Fe(II) and H2O2 produces OH through the Fenton reactionnHighlight:Fe(II) catalyzes the formation of OH and OH during the interaction between H2O2 and O2•− (Haber–Weiss reaction)nHighlight:Ascorbate can efficiently reduce free iron, thus recycling the cellular Fe(II)/Fe(III) to produce more OH from H2O2 than can be generated during the Fenton reaction, which ultimately leads to lipid, protein, and DNA oxidationnHighlight:Vit-C-stimulated iron absorptionnHighlight:reduce cellular iron effluxnHighlight:high-dose Vit-C may elevate cellular LIP concentrationsnHighlight:ascorbate enhanced cancer cell LIP specifically by generating H2O2nHighlight:Vit-C produces H2O2 extracellularly, which in turn inhibits tumor cells immediatelynHighlight:free irons, especially Fe(II), increase Vit-C autoxidation, leading to H2O2 productionnHighlight:Tf has been recognized to sequester most labile Fe(II) in vivonHighlight:Asc•− and H2O2 were generated in vivo upon i.v Vit-C administration of around 0.5 g/kg of body weight and that the generation was Vit-C-dose reliantnHighlight:tumor cells have a need for readily available Fe(II) to survive and proliferate.nHighlight:iron metabolism is altered in malignanciesnHighlight:increase in the expression of various iron-intake pathways or the downregulation of iron exporter proteins and storage pathwaysnHighlight:Fe(II) ion in breast cancer cells is almost double that in normal breast tissuesnHighlight:macrophages in the cancer microenvironment have been revealed to increase iron sheddingnHighlight:Advanced breast tumor patients had substantially greater Fe(II) levels in their blood than the control groups without the diseasenHighlight:increased the amount of LIP inside the cells through transferrin receptor (TfR)nHighlight:Warburg effect, or metabolic reprogramming,nHighlight:Warburg effect is aided by KRAS or BRAF mutationsnHighlight:Vit-C is supplied, it oxidizes to DHA, and then is readily transported by GLUT-1 in mutant cells of KRAS or BRAF competing with glucose []. DHA is quickly converted into ascorbate inside the cell by NADPH and GSH [,]. This decrease reduces the concentration of cytosolic antioxidants and raises the intracellular ROS amountsnHighlight:increased ROS inactivates glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)nHighlight:ROS activates poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which depletes NAD+ (a critical co-factor of GAPDH); thus, further reducing the GAPDH associated with a multifaceted metabolic rewiringnHighlight:Hindering GAPDH can result in an “energy crisis”, due to the decrease in ATP productionnHighlight:high-dose Vit-C recruited metabolites and increased the enzymatic activity in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), blocked the tri-carboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and increased oxygen uptake, disrupting the intracellular metabolic balance and resulting in irreversible cell death, due to an energy crisisnHighlight:mega-dose Vit-C influences energy metabolism by producing tremendous amounts of H2O2nHighlight:Due to its great volatility at neutral pH [], bolus therapy with mega-dose DHA has only transitory effects on tumor cells, both in vitro and in vivo.n]]>

Picture of About Dr. Nathan Goodyear
About Dr. Nathan Goodyear

Dr. Nathan Goodyear, a medical doctor with years of experience in the field of integrative cancer care, has announced the launch of an online training program. This program, available on his new website, will provide individuals with access to video trainings led by Dr. Goodyear himself, covering a range of topics related to integrative cancer care. These trainings will include information on the latest research and techniques in the field, as well as guidance on how to incorporate these approaches into a patient’s overall cancer treatment plan. With this online program, Dr. Goodyear hopes to make his expertise and knowledge more widely accessible, and help more people understand the benefits of integrative cancer care.

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