Expression and function of the insulin receptor substrate proteins in cancer | Cell Communication and Signaling | Full Text

2). Importantly, many of these effector-signaling pathways have been implicated in tumorigenesis and cancer progression.nHighlight:IRS expression is most often elevated in human tumors when compared with normal tissuenHighlight:expression of the IRS proteins may not reflect the functional status of these adaptor proteinsnHighlight:IRS proteins function as essential signaling intermediates downstream of many cell surface receptors that have been implicated in cancernHighlight:IRS proteins are major downstream effectors of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) receptor (IGF-1R) and they play a critical role in determining the cellular response to IGF-1 stimulationnHighlight:Other growth factor/hormone receptors that signal through the IRS proteins and that are associated with cancer include the insulin, prolactin, growth hormone (GH), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; KDR) receptorsnHighlight:Full length anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), a member of the insulin receptor superfamily and receptor for the growth factor pleiotrophin, also signals through the IRS proteinsnHighlight:IRS proteins are positioned to play a key role in regulating the response of tumor cells to microenvironmental stimulnHighlight:IRS-1 and IRS-4 are most often associated with tumor growth and proliferation nHighlight:IRS-2 is most often associated with tumor motility and invasion.nHighlight:IRS-1 is the predominant IRS family member that is activated by IGF-1 in well-differentiated estrogen receptor positive (ER+) human breast carcinoma cell lines nHighlight:activation of both MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways has been implicated in the stimulation of proliferation by IRS-1nHighlight:IRS-1, activation of Akt and Erk1/2 and association with β-catenin nHighlight:IRS-1 expression data in human breast and lung cancer, these results reveal that loss of IRS-1 expression or function may facilitate tumor progressionnHighlight:IRS-2 may promote tumor progression by stimulating a positive feedback loop to enhance IGF-1 signalingn]]>

About Dr. Nathan Goodyear
About Dr. Nathan Goodyear

Dr. Nathan Goodyear, a medical doctor with years of experience in the field of integrative cancer care, has announced the launch of an online training program. This program, available on his new website, will provide individuals with access to video trainings led by Dr. Goodyear himself, covering a range of topics related to integrative cancer care. These trainings will include information on the latest research and techniques in the field, as well as guidance on how to incorporate these approaches into a patient’s overall cancer treatment plan. With this online program, Dr. Goodyear hopes to make his expertise and knowledge more widely accessible, and help more people understand the benefits of integrative cancer care.

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