Clinical and biological significance of circulating tumor cells in cancer

Mandel and Metais (1948)nHighlight:There are 3 materials that may be detected in liquid biopsy: CTCs, cell‐free DNA (cfDNA), and exosomenHighlight:CTCs can be identified morphologically, and molecular characterization of CTCs can be performed using a variety of modalitiesnHighlight:detection and clinical applications of CTCs using this system and showed that CTCs were a significant indicator of prognosis and effectiveness of treatment in metastatic breast cancer.nHighlight:metastatic breast, colorectal and prostate cancernHighlight:5 CTCs in 7.5 mL PB; the presence of these CTCs was associated with decreased progression‐free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS)nHighlight: CTCs could be used as an independent prognostic factor in early breast cancernHighlight:CTCs could predict disease progression and chemotherapeutic effects in patients with gastrointestinal cancersnHighlight:CTC count was higher in patients with lung cancer than in patients without malignant disease (30.6% versus 12.0%, respectively)nSticky notes:This suggests that CTCs are circulating in people without evidence of disease.nHighlight:CTC count was higher in patients with distant metastasisnHighlight:CTCs was an independent predictor of short PFS in patients with advanced gastric cancernHighlight:testicular germ cell tumorsnHighlight: esophageal cancer nHighlight:squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavitynHighlight:the detectability of CTCs depends on the type of malignancynHighlight: false‐positive resultsnHighlight:not all CTCs will lead to the formation of metastatic lesionsnHighlight:approximately 30% of patients with breast or gastric cancernHighlight:ER is expressed in approximately 70% of patients with breast cancer;nHighlight:Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain why ER induces tumorigenesis. First, binding of estrogen to the ER stimulates proliferation of mammary cells, resulting in increased cell division and DNA replication, thereby leading to mutations. Second, estrogen metabolism produces genotoxic wastenHighlight:PD‐L1 binds PD‐1 to reduce the cellular immune response by inducing T‐cell tolerance which helps prevent autoimmunitynHighlight:PD‐L1 expression is inversely correlated with the intraepithelial CD8+ T‐lymphocyte count, suggesting that PD‐L1 on tumor cells may suppress antitumor CD8+ T cellsnHighlight: circulating tumor stem cells (CTSCs)nHighlight:EMT is a process through which epithelial cells lose their cell polarity and cell–cell adhesion and gain migratory and invasive properties to become mesenchymal cellsnHighlight:nitiation of metastasis requires invasion, which is enabled by the EMTnHighlight:

nPecot et al. (2011) assessed the population of complex aneuploid CTCs that did not express CK or EpCAM epithelial antigen in patients with breast, ovarian, or colorectal cancer. They found a conversion to an EMT phenotype in the captured cells (Pecot et al., 2011). Recently, Yu et al. (2013) repor

nHighlight:CTCs are very raren]]>

About Dr. Nathan Goodyear
About Dr. Nathan Goodyear

Dr. Nathan Goodyear, a medical doctor with years of experience in the field of integrative cancer care, has announced the launch of an online training program. This program, available on his new website, will provide individuals with access to video trainings led by Dr. Goodyear himself, covering a range of topics related to integrative cancer care. These trainings will include information on the latest research and techniques in the field, as well as guidance on how to incorporate these approaches into a patient’s overall cancer treatment plan. With this online program, Dr. Goodyear hopes to make his expertise and knowledge more widely accessible, and help more people understand the benefits of integrative cancer care.

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